Brazil


Officially the Federative Republic of Brazil is the largest country in South America and the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas.  It is both the world's fifth largest country by geographical area and by population.


Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, Mercosul  and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC Countries.

The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District. The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity  of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism.(Ha!)

THERE ARE TWO MAIN SOURCES OF CORRUPTION IN BRAZIL


First of all, each incoming government has at least 22,000 public posts at its discretion, which means the public employees and officials are hand-picked, without the need to go through any selection process whatsoever.

That constitutes a weapon in negotiations with the legislature, because the executive branch offers posts to the parties or lawmakers in exchange for support in Congress, Abramo pointed out.

Through that mechanism, all Brazilian governments, not only the current PT administration, expand on the legislative support that they have won in elections. The eradication of this distortion is never discussed, because no party is interested in doing so, since the opposition also makes use of the system, said the expert.

The second major source of corruption, the discretionary budget, allows the executive branch to employ and manipulate public funds according to its interests at any given moment, and "to use them to corrupt," he added.

Public tenders are also used to trade favors between government officials and companies contracted as suppliers, in violation of the rules.

The problem in Brazil, said Abramo, "is not the laws, it's how they're enforced." The situation is further aggravated by the funding shortfall in state oversight bodies.  

CRIME IN BRAZIL


Crime  in Brazil  involves an elevated incidence of violent and non-violent crimes. According to most sources, Brazil possesses high rates of violent crimes, such as murders and robberies; the homicide  rate has been steadily declining, but it is still above 20.0 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants, placing the country in the top 20 countries by intentional homicide rate.

The Swiss-based NGO Small Arms Survey says that, in light of recent improvements, Brazil is no longer one of the most violent places on Earth. Kidnappings  occur, but increased police know-how has somewhat alleviated the problem. Prostitution  per se is not a crime in Brazil, unlike procuring.

The Government of Brazil  has recently increased efforts to combat child prostitution and sex tourism. In 2010, 473,600 people are incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.  Drugs are responsible for 85,000 of the total tally.

It is believed that most life-threatening crime in Brazil can be traced back to drug trade and alcoholism. Brazil is a heavy importer of illicit cocaine, as well as part of the international drug routes. Arms and marijuana employed by criminals are mostly locally-produced.

New legislation has brought stricter punishment to domestic abuse and driving under the influence. Thousands of human trafficking and slavery cases are reported annually, usually associated with sugarcane plantation or, in the cities, illegal immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Crime rates vary greatly across the country, with a higher incidence in metropolitan suburbs and in border zones.

White-collar crime is targeted mainly by public prosecutors and the Federal Police,and receives new attention from lawmakers: the crime of money laundering was introduced in 1998.

Corruption of public officials rarely results in criminal prosecution, due to confusing laws (suspects of corruption are often indicted for associated charges); voter fraud was tackled by universal electronic voting.

The Internet is also home to numerous Brazilian hackers, while online hate speech, heavily penalized in the Brazilian Penal Code, eludes officers.

Land crime is propitiated by bureaucracy and government tolerance, and conflicting ownership claims, particularly in rural areas, challenge the rule of law; deforestation, once rampant, today has sharply declined as negative incentives are imposed and satellite tracking is perfected.

"IN 2006 NEARLY 50,000 PEOPLE WERE MURDERED IN BRASIL. MORE THAN 500,000 PEOPLE HAVE BEEN KILLED BY FIREARMS IN BRAZIL BETWEEN 1979 AND 2003, ACCORDING TO A UNITED NATIONS REPORT"


A lingering problem are human rights violations during the capture and custody of suspects, which were mentioned in a recent United Nations report. On the other hand, criminal charges have been described as exceedingly lax, allowing violent criminals an early return to society.

The justice system is slow, largely because of loopholes that allow for numerous appeals. According to the U.S. Department of State, a majority of crimes are not solved.

Crime in Brazil is a common theme in the popular media globally, to the point that it is believed to tarnish the country's image. Locals often complain that Brazil's fame as a criminal hotspot is hysterical, going far beyond actual statistical comparisons.

Various Brazilian organizations have protested against depictions of crime in programs such as The Simpsons, Law and Order: Criminal Intent and in the movie Turistas.

"CORRUPTION IN BRAZIL IS AN AGE-OLD PRACTICE THAT IS FUELLED TODAY BY THE SAME SOURCES AS IN THE PAST. "

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